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ESOP for Private Companies in India

ESOP for Private Companies in India


Building a skilled workforce, essential for company success in the modern world, may be accomplished with the help of employee stock option plans (ESOP) or employee stock option schemes (ESOS). Employee stock options have recently become more popular in India due to the country’s thriving ESOP startup culture. High-performing workers today demand more from their employers than simply a wage, and esop startups have taken advantage of this shift in expectations to draw in and keep top talent. This essay examines the fundamentals of employee stock options in a private limited company.

With the help of this strategy, ESOP giants like Amazon, Tcs, Apple, etc., have minted millionaire staff.

According to reports, Infosys, a major multinational corporation, gave its staff more than 5 billion shares as compensation in 2019. It has been noted as the first business to provide its employees access to such a big sum.

An ESOP is an employee’s right to purchase business shares at a price. A private company’s ESOP may be characterized as a beneficial plan encouraging workers to take an active role in the business. It is mostly offered by unlisted private enterprises or inexperienced startup businesses with meagre resources. They are compensated through bonuses or pay programmes.


Employee Stock Ownership Plan, sometimes called Employee Stock Option Plan, is referred to by the acronym ESOP. Many listed and unlisted private firms utilize it as a strategy to inspire their staff members. It is still a widely used strategy by the business to recruit, motivate, and provide for the requirements of the employees. The Indian economy’s dynamics have changed as a result of ESOP. Startup businesses typically support ESOPs since they cannot offer their employees high wages but are willing to sell them future company shares instead. The firm expects the employees’ long-term dedication in exchange for perks like ESOP.

ESOP For Private Companies

Employee stock option plans (ESOPs) give workers of a firm the chance to acquire the company’s shares at pre-set prices. ESOPs allow employees the option, but not the duty, to acquire a specified number of shares at a predetermined price for a predetermined number of years.

ESOP Illustration

The following three considerations should be kept in mind when creating ESOP plans:

  • ESOP Valuation: With an ESOP, employees have the option or right to purchase business shares at a set price. As a result, the employee need not exercise the right to purchase company shares if the value of the shares is less than the option exercise price. It is not a must.
  • The predetermined price at which an employee may acquire firm shares later is known as the ESOP exercise price.
  • Vesting Periods and Vesting Percentages are features of ESOPs. The amount of time an employee must work for the firm throughout the vesting period before being eligible for the ESOP.
  • The time frame during which an employee must exercise an option under an ESOP is known as the excise period.

Why are they Important?

Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) compensate employees when stock prices rise, encouraging shareholders and employees to work toward the same objective. Offering ESOPs is still a fantastic approach for businesses to assemble teams of high achievers. To match employee interests with those of the company’s shareholders, employers who provide ESOPs to their staff members. By enhancing the company’s financial and operational performance, shareholders express their desire to maximize the value of their shares.

Why Do You Employe ESOP in Private Limited Company

To give ESOP in an Indian Private Limited Company, the following regulations apply:

  1. Employees may get ESOP, as described below:
    1. a full-time or part-time permanent employee of the firm who has worked in India or elsewhere; a director of the company who is not an independent director; or
    2. An employee of the corporation, a holding company, an affiliated company, or an employee in India or abroad.
  2. An employee who is a promoter, a member of the promoter group, or a director who possesses more than 10% of the company’s outstanding equity shares directly or indirectly, either personally or via his family or another body corporate, is not eligible for an ESOP.
  3. The company’s shareholders must approve the ESOP plan after they adopt a special resolution with an explanation.
  4. The ESOP exercise price will be at the discretion of the corporation issuing the ESOP.
  5. The time between the option’s award and vesting must be at least one year.
  6. Employees are not permitted to transfer their options to another individual.
  7. The Board of Directors must disclose the specifics of the ESOP plan in the Director’s Report each year.
  8. The business is required to keep an ESOP Register and records of the options given to workers.

Compliances: ESOP To Employees

According to Rule 12 (10) of the Rules, the corporation must furthermore adhere to the following standards in addition to the ones listed above:

(a) Keep a record of all employee stock options issued under Section 62(1)(b) of the Act in a register using Form No. SH.6.

(b) The Register of Employee Stock Options must be kept at the company’s registered office or other location determined by the board of directors.

(c) The company secretary or any other individual designated by the board of directors must certify the entries in the register.

Objectives of ESOP for private companies:

  1. draws in and honours the company’s personnel
  2. Please encourage them to contribute to the expansion and success of the business.

In 1956, section 2 of the Companies Act first mentioned the ESOP plan. This strategy was put into operation by the Companies Act of 2013, which established some guidelines that must be followed. According to Rule 12 of the Rules, 2014, the procedures for providing ESOP to workers are as follows:

  1. It may be given to a company’s permanent employee living in or outside India.
  2. He ought to serve as the organization’s permanent director.
  3. He should work for an Indian subsidiary firm as a permanent director or employee.

Although it isn’t explicitly stated, workers working with the organization for an extended time are considered permanent employees. It cannot be given to an employee member of several promoter groups or a director who may own 10% of the company’s equity shares.

Working on ESOP for Private Companies:

The ESOP system typically hinges on two times:

  1. Vesting period: The day the corporation announces that workers may purchase shares. It is not subject to any laws or duties. It might take several months. Employees participating in the ESOP plan can buy shares for a significant discount from their market value after the vesting term.
  2. The exercise period is when the employee purchases or brings the business share. The portion has been given to the employees as of this time.

ESOP is an ESPS for a listed firm (Employee Stock Purchase Scheme). It is described as a plan whereby workers are given business shares as part of a public offering.

Difference Between ESOP and ESPS:

While ESPS is for privately held firms that are publicly traded, ESOP is for privately held enterprises that are not. In contrast to the ESPS, where employees do not have rights to ESOP shares but can acquire them at a discounted price, the ESOP does not impose duties while issuing shares to its employees at a fixed price. They make deductions from their compensation in ESPS.

ESOP Benefits for Private Companies:

  1. Recognizing them for their efforts motivates the workers.
  2. Long-term retention of devoted staff benefits the business.
  3. Taxes can be saved by using the ESOP, as has been seen.
  4. It offers a pension once the worker retires.
  5. It increases the company’s supplementary capital.
  6. It stops money from leaving the system.
  7. It and the employees both operate out of the same business unit.

Everything has a pro and a con, much like a coin with two sides. We have so far only talked about the ESOP benefits for employees, but those drawbacks are unavoidable. ESOP also has a negative aspect. Companies that don’t make the necessary earnings fail to reward their workers and may even reduce their pay.

Disadvantages of ESOP for private companies:

  1. After a given amount of time, ESOP may become a requirement, affecting the company’s liquidity.
  2. In some businesses, when an employee exercises the value of his ESOP share, the ESOP may occasionally become taxable. Additionally, it becomes taxable if he makes money off the sale of the shares.


A private firm’s employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) has helped cultivate a sense of employee ownership among employees and draw in new hires as the business expands. By rewarding them for their commitment to the firm, the ESOP should be used to motivate the workforce. It encourages workers to contribute to the success of the business. A highly qualified and knowledgeable individual is essential for promoting an understanding of the ESOP plan, its regulations, and its numerous business financial processes. After a few years, the ESOP system will have a significant beneficial impact on the economies of India and other nations.

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